Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Diseases
What is “Allergology “?
Allergic diseases were known in ancient times, but the term “allergy” exist just since 1906 year. Allergology is the science about allergic diseases, thus this field of medicine is rather young, but very quickly developing. In our days allergy is recognised as change in immune system, i.e. hypersensitivity to specific environmental substancies.
What kind of allergic diseases are treated in GK Clinic?
The following allergic diseases are treated in GK Clinic:
- Allergic conjunctivitis;
- Allergic rhinitis;
- Allergic contact dermatitis;
- Sun hives (“sun” allergy);
- Atopic dermatitis;
- Angiooedema (Quinke oedema);
- Medication allergy;
- Food allergy.
How to diagnoze allergic disease?
History of disease is especially important in allergology, it helps in choosing the tests, identifying allergen (a substance, for which a person has hypersensitivity). According to your complaints physician will choose appropriate method of examination.
What kind of tests may be perfomed at GK Clinic?
There are several dermal allergy tests, precisellly indentifing specific allergen. The folllowing tests are perfomed in our Clinic:
- Prick test;
- Prick-Prick test;
- Scratch test;
- Epicutaneous test.
The following laboratory tests are performed to diagnoze allergic diseases at our Clinic:
- Total blood IgE;
- Specificl blood IgE;
What is skin Prick test?
Skin Prick test is mostly used to diagnose allergic diseases.Prepared allergic solutions of specific concentration are dripped on the internal surface of the arm skin and skin surface is pricked with a special Prick needle injuring just superficial skin layer. Reaction is evaluated in 15 minutes using 4 grade scale. This test is used to diagnose allergy to pollens, domestic dust ticks, hair of animals, mildew fungi and foodstuff.
Why Prick-Prick test is so special?
Prick-Prick test is performed using certain alergens (vegetable and fruits). This test is performed as Prick test, but suspected nutrient allergens are used instead of manufactured ones. First of all injection is performed into the chosen allergen, such as apple, kiwi, and then – into the skin using the same needle.
What is “Scratch test” ?
Scratch test may be used to test for medications allergy. Solutions of allergens are applied on the internal surface of the arm, then surface of the skin is scratched using special needle.
How epicutanic test is perfomed?
Epicutanic test is perfomed to determine contact allergens when allergic contact dermatitis is suspected. Standartized TRUE tests (allergens in specialized cups, prepared on the special adhesive tape) are used for that purpose. Adhesive tapes of TRUE tests are attached on the healthy skin of the back. They are maintained affixed for two days, i.e. 48 hours. Then they are removed and evaluated in 30 minutes by the physician. If this test is performed to you, you have to come for the visit next two days, because these test must be re-evaluated in 72 and 96 hours.
IMPORTANT: The use of oral antihistaminic and systemic corticosteroids is restricted for one week before allergy test. Dermal hormonal medicines should not be applied on the regions of the tests (back, internal surface of the arms) 3 weeks before skin allergy test.
What are the principles of treatment of the allergic diseases?
- Avoid allergen
Allergens (food, medications, domestic ticks, pollens, hair of the animals, contact allergens) are identified during careful anamnesis and allergological diagnostics. The patients are told about prevalence of allergen in the environment and strategy of avoidance, possible cross-reactions, alternative products (diet, the list of safe cosmetics).
- Treatment of allergy using medications
Medications that alleviate the symptoms of allergy (oral medications, nasal or ophthalmic drops), diet and prescribed first-aid medicines.
- Specific immunotherapy
Ambulatory hyposensibilisation (SIT) is the treatment when immune system is exposed to allergy initiating substance, and so, very slowly hypersensivity of the patient is reduced. SIT may be performed in two ways (when allergen is injected subcutaneously or dropped sublingually). The duration of the treatment is 3 – 5 years. This unique treatment allows to recover from allergy. It seems as body is used to allergen and does not react.